# Category: Science

## Light Y7/8 Key Terms

 Term Definition Reflection When light bounces off surfaces. (On a mirror the angle it shines on the mirror and the angle it reflects are the same.) Refraction When light bends when it goes into a different material e.g. glass, water, air. Dispersion When white light separates into colours of the spectrum. Spectrum All the different colours. R, O, Y, G, B, I, V Three primary: green, red, blue. Secondary: green + red = yellow  OR green + blue = cyan OR red + blue = magenta Mirror A shiny surface which reflects light. Triangular Prism This makes light refract inside the prims and disperse in the air into a spectrum of colours Virtual Image Not real – i.e your face that appears inside a mirror behind the wall Vacuum Light does not need a medium to travel through Transparent Light can pass through a transparent sheet of glass Opaque Light cannot travel through a wall Ray diagram A model which uses ruled lines to show the pathway of travel, with arrows, connected up Incident Light going towards a surface Reflected Light going away from a surface (normally as the same angle it came it at) Normal Line at 90 degrees to a surface where you measure the angle from Scattering A rough surface scatters light in all directions so no image is formed Filters Act to filter out all the colours except that one. Translucent Allows some light to pass through but not enough to see detailed shapes Eye Structure Cornea, Pupil, Suspensory ligament, retina, focal point, iris, optic nerve, blind spot EM Spectrum Radio, Micro, IR, ROY-G-BIV, V, X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, (Cosmic) Convex Lens which is fat in the middle and gives a focal point. Common uses are magnifying glasses Concave Lens is skinny in the middle (or like a cave) makes the light spread out or disperse to form virtual images

## Y7 Light Resources

Lesson 1 Transmission of Light

Lesson 2 Reflection “Theory”

Lesson 3 Reflection “Practical”

Lesson 4a How We See Colour

Lesson 4b Mixing Colours

Lesson 5 Colour Filters

## Y8 Optics and Light Resources…

Lesson 1 Refraction in a Prism

Lesson 2a Dispersion

Lesson 2b Colour

Lesson 3 Lenses

Lesson 4 How We See

Lesson 5 Beyond Light “Hershel’s IR Exp

Interactive Quiz – Waves

## Reflection and Refraction

This movie shows refraction, reflection, TIR with prisms.

## Sound Resources…

This series of 4 lessons covers Y7 sound and how we hear.

Lesson 1: Vibrations and Waves

Lesson 2: Seeing Sound

Lesson 3: Speed of Sound

Lesson 4 How We Hear

## Signal Generator and Oscilloscope

Oscilloscope and Signal Generator showing ideas of frequency and amplitude for Ks3-5 Pupils

## Simulation

University of Vienna Simulation (PC version) to look at lenses for the more advanced view) lenses simulation

## Plant Reproduction

This section has a series of resources which focuses on the sexual and asexual reproduction of animals with 5 topic lessons

1 Intro to reproduction

2 Plant Reproduction / Structure

3 Pollination & Fertilisation

4 Seed dispersal

5 Asexual Reproduction

Reproduction Interactive Quiz

Genetics Interactive Quiz

## Flower Dissection - Reproduction in flowering plants

Worksheet and posters:
https://igcsebio.sciencesauceonline.com/flower-structures-and-functions/

RELATED VIDEOS
Flower Structures and Functions: `https://youtu.be/GkzFimUJdD8
How to Draw a Flower: https://youtu.be/4XgSAUNGoYA
Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Explained: https://youtu.be/co5jZId0F-g
Advantages of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction: https://youtu.be/gAgyw72JiVA

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VIDEO DESCRIPTION
Many species of plant contain both ...
the male and female parts within each flower.

The male part, the stamen, is comprised of the anthers at the top, supported by the filament. The anthers produce pollen which contains the male gamete.

The female part, known as the carpel, has a stigma at the top where pollen attaches, and the ovary at the bottom containing ovules, the female gamete. Between the ovary and stigma is the style.

Insect (also bird, bat…) pollinated flowers have attractive looking petals to attract animals, and also produce nectar (a sugar-rich liquid) which provide a food source for animals. They also have a strong scent.

## Animal Reproduction

This section has a series of resources which just focuses on the sexual reproduction of animals with 5 topic lessons

6 Male Repro Structure & Function

7 Female Repro Structure & Function

8 Fertilisation & Pregnancy

9 Birth and Pregnancy

10 Cloning

## Life Before Birth - In the Womb

Subscribe to Naked Science - http://goo.gl/wpc2Q1

“My chances are 50-50. Not great odds. And that’s only to get to the starting line. The human race is not for ...
the faint hearted, when half the runners are doomed to die, before the race gets started.”

This documentary film explores the development of the growing fetus from conception to delivery. Open a window into the hidden world of the foetus and explore each trimester in amazing detail. It’s meant to be a joyous event, but in reality, it's a gripping battle for survival. Using cutting edge technology, we go inside the womb and follow the incredible nine month journey from conception to birth, showing how the struggle for life turns into the miracle of birth. Enhanced by poet Roger McGough’s reading of a series of poems written for the occasion.

“Until now, I thought I was the universe. But everything that is, was within me. Now that I can touch these walls, I realise I must be deep inside a greater universe.”

## KS3 Ecosystems & Ecology

This section has a series of resources which focuses on food chains, webs and predator prey relationships of animals and plants with 6 topic lessons. The second PowerPoint is for a Tree and Leaf STEM identification project. It depends a lot on the trees around but we have a huge amount, so it was easy. You can edit and limit the outcomes but it’s great to do on a summer day.

1 Food Chains

2 Food Webs

3 Pyramids of Number and Biomass

5 Predator and Prey Graphs

6 Extinct animals and conservation

7 Tree and Leaf Project

Interactive Quiz

## GCSE Biology - Food Chains & Predator Prey Cycles #85

For ecosystems to function they need energy; and we can see how this energy moves through ecosystems with food chains. We also explore how the populations of predators and prey ...vary over time with predator prey cycles.[+] Show More

## KS3 Living Organisms

This section has a series of resources which focuses on breathing in humans and respiration in other organisms with 6 topic lessons. It can easily be expanded to 10 lessons with more practical time if required.

Lesson 1: Structure of Thorax & Inhalation & Exhalation

Lesson 2: Gas Exchange Surface & Tidal and Vital Capacity

Lesson 3: Aerobic Respiration & Maggot Respirometer

Lesson 4: Anaerobic Respiration

Lesson 5/6: Making Yogurt, Bread and Beer

Interactive Quiz

Inside The Lungs

## KS3 Chemical Reactions

This section has a series of resources which focuses on the reactions of metals to teach basic interactions with 9 topic lessons. MAZINTL and MAZIT are rather useful here!

Lesson 1: Metals

Lesson 2: Metal Properties

Lesson 3: Metal and Non-metal Oxides

Lesson 4: Metals and Water

Lesson 5: Metals and Acid

Lesson 6: Displacement Reactions

Lesson 7/8: Test and Review

Lesson 9: Metals Extraction

Interactive Quiz – Metal Reactions

Interactive Quiz – Acids and Alkalis

## This is how the ionic bond forms in Lithium Oxide (Li2O).

This short flash animation looks at how the ionic bond forms in Lithium Oxide (Li2O).

## Atoms, Elements and Compounds

This section has a series of resources which focuses on the basics of matter such as atoms, elements and compounds in 6 topic lessons.

Lesson 1/2: Intro and Atoms

Lesson 3: The Periodic Table

Lesson 4: Naming Compounds

Lesson 5:  Compounds “Magnesium & Oxygen”

Lesson 6: Mixtures, Compounds, Elements

Interactive Quiz – States and Separation

Interactive Quiz – Atoms Elements Compounds

Interactive Quiz

## The Periodic Table Song

A classic bit of fun!

## KS3 Energy Stores and Resources

### Resources

Y7 Energy (5 lessons of content)

## Types and Stores

### Definition

Chemical

Energy stored in a fuel and is obtained by breaking of chemical bonds i.e. burning fuels OR a chemical reaction in a cell/battery

Elastic

Energy stored due to a force on a stretched or compressed spring

Gravitational

Due to the position of an object in a gravitational field height above ground.

Kinetic

Energy stored in a moving object, faster they move the more energy contained

Nuclear

Energy obtained in a splitting the atom (not renewable) gives out a particle radiation

Potential

Energy that is stored in an object ready to be used but not in action. (i.e. chemical, elastic, gravitational potential

Thermal

Energy contained in a objects temperature

Conservation

Energy is never destroyed or made (since the start of the universe) it is only moved around to different places, spread out or concentrated. We say it is “transformed”

Resource

A source where energy can be obtained from i.e. a wind, solar, nuclear, tidal, geothermal, hydroelectric

Renewable

Sources of energy that don’t run out in the lifetime of the planet i.e. solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric etc..

Non-Renewable

A fuel that burns OR fuel source that is used up i.e. atoms that splits.

Fuel

A source of energy which can be used up i.e. petrol which is then burned to release the chemical energy

Uranium

a large atom which splits to release thermal/kinetic energy at a power station. It heats water, which turns to steam to turn a turbine and electrical generator.

Mechanism

Energy transfers take place via four mechanisms or carriers: radiation, electrical, mechanical, thermal.

### Energy Stores

Energy can be stored in different ways, including:

1. kinetic (in a moving object)
2. chemical (e.g. fuel + oxygen chemical bonds)
3. thermal (in a warm object)
4. nuclear (released through radioactive decay, fission or fusion)
5. gravitational (due to the position of an object in a gravitational field height)
6. magnetic (in two separated magnets that are attracting, or repelling)
7. elastic (e.g. in a stretched or compressed spring)
8. electrostatic (in two separated electric charges that are attracting, or repelling)

### Energy Mechanisms / Carriers

Energy can transfer or move from one store to another in different ways. Devices such as lamps and heaters may be involved, or processes such as combustion.

For example, energy can be transferred:

1. mechanically (when a force moves through a distance)
2. electrically (when a charge moves through a potential difference)
3. by heating (because of a temperature difference) thermal difference
4. by radiation (e.g. light, microwaves, sound)

Heating: Some objects are hotter than others. Energy is transferred from the hotter object to the cooler one, and the difference in temperature between them decreases.

Mechanical transfer: Energy can be transferred mechanically through the movement of the parts in machines, and when the motion or position of an object changes. Sound waves and seismic waves (formed during earthquakes) are mechanical waves that transfer energy through materials and from place to place.

Electrical transfer: Energy is transferred when an electrical circuit is complete. A simple circuit may consist of a battery, lamp and wires. Internal energy stored in the battery is transferred to moving charged particles in the wire.

Transfer by radiation: Visible light, infrared light, microwaves and radio waves are forms of radiation. They are carried by waves (although unlike sound, these are not mechanical waves and can travel through empty space). Electric lamps and burning fuels transfer visible and infrared light to the surroundings.

## Energy 101: Electricity Generation

Animated correspondent "Little Lee Patrick Sullivan" follows electricity from its source to the light bulb in your home, explaining different fuels, thermal power generation, transmission and the grid.

# Animated Science 1-9 GCSE Practical Methods

This booklet of Methods is a simple reference point for the 1-9 Physics GCSE Required Practical methods.

Often questions will be based around these themes and you must learn to interpret the questions on the day as they will try and put them in unfamiliar situations.

This booklet is not designed to teach you everything in the practical’s but to be used to recap what you have already done in class. I have limited most topics to 1 or 2 pages of the bare basics.

You must be able to recall all this booklet and the ideas in it if you want to be able to answer some of the questions in your exams.

They are sure to ask about at least 2 of these topics, and most likely 4 or 5 topics in details so time spent on these topics will stand you in good stead.

Try and use this booklet as a starting point and then read more around the subject and tackle some exam questions to help you out.

I have also included some more help on each of the Key Terms you need to know as well. It can be viewed as a PowerPoint or PDF….

GCSE 1 to 9 Summary