This resource is designed to rework some of Petty’s 2010 work on Hattie and Marzano’s research on “EBT” – evidence based teaching. i.e. what actually works for real. Again it is pretty clear that most of these ideas are in daily use in classrooms in most schools all around the world. This document is useful to see how the factors seemed to have such a different effect. Clearly we should try and stick to the ones that work. I have included some Science specific advice which I use in my own classroom. A lot of teaching research has taken place over the last 30 year on “evidence based teaching”. So now you are asking what do I mean by “EBT”?
It is really simple, you need to try and teach using methods which are the most productive. If you conduct a study and try and separate off each of the key methods to work out which one is best you get a indication of which one you should do more of.
Evidence Based Teaching…. “Graphic Organisers are the best”
Two researchers Hattie, Marzano all did research into this area and then Geoff Petty published various documents which have been really useful to classroom teachers. Petty put together some of the ideas in 2010 to produce a really useful piece of work about “Graphic Organisers”. I have reworked his ideas to a more modern simple approach which applies mainly to teaching Secondary Science.
Marzano, R.J. et al (2001), Classroom Instruction that Works.
Petty, G. (2006), Evidence Based Teaching
Evidence Based Teaching…. “Driving Progress?”
So what is the graphic about and all the numbers?
The research done by Hattie and Marzano worked out that some methods which had a better teaching effect. They went through some complex trials with classes and double blind tests but overall they came out with pretty clear results. (see next slides) The scale is useful as we are looking for at least 0.5 as a factor and over 1 is a real winner.
One really interesting factor was the negatives. (I have missed out the middle factors) but -0.78 for disruption is a massive issues. Which really shows why you need to get your behaviour policy working well. If not despite all the best “interventions” you try you will hold you head just below the waterline on your progress 8 figures.
Normal annual maturation, no teaching
Average effect of a teacher, regardless of quality
Average effect of all educational interventions
Equivalent to +1 grades as GCSE or A-level
Significant Effect, visible in class
Equivalent to +2 grades as GCSE or A-level
Marzano Research Key Factors….
Ave Effect Size
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
Tasks that require students to compare and contrast.
These include drawings, illustrations and annotated diagrams, but mostly Graphic Organisers.
Challenges that require deep thinking and active learning.
FEEDBACK (ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING/FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT)
Students finding out what they have done well and what they need to improve.
Students creating personal and organised notes. Linked to peer explanation.
RELEVANT RECALL QUESTIONS
Questions designed to connect to students’ relevant prior knowledge.
MANIPULATIVES (DECISIONS, DECISIONS)
Students physically manipulate pre–printed cards into different arrangements to represent their ideas.
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
Students have to use higher–order, evaluative, thinking. Works very well with Assertive Questioning.
Methods such as Jigsaw and Snowballing where students teach and check each others’ work.
Giving students clearly organised summaries of what they are about to learn.
Hattie’s Research Key Factors….
Ave Effect Size
WHOLE CLASS INTERACTIVE TEACHING
A specific approach to active learning in class which is very teacher–led but very active for students. Students and teachers get feedback throughout.
Strategy to help reading comprehension for students who find this difficult. It involves them in questioning, summarising, clarifying and predicting.
FEEDBACK (ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING/FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT)
Students getting feedback on their work from the teacher, from themselves or from their peers.
Explicit teaching of a particular study or thinking skill.
The influence of appropriate student behaviour on achievement.
The prior achievement of students in the class.
OPEN V TRADITIONAL
In primaries, working on own projects as opposed to whole–class learning.
Keeping students back and re–doing a whole year again.
TRANSFER OF SCHOOL
Graphic Organisers + 1.3 (over two grades)
Graphic organisers fall into four key categories and it is important to use the appropriate one.” They are used to:
- Define (describe)
- Cause and Effect
Representing knowledge and ideas in visual format has one of the very highest scoring effect sizes. They are called graphic organisers because they organise information in a graphic fashion! By doing so, they by-pass the complexities of syntax. They offer the quickest and surest insight into students’ thinking and, as such, are powerful tools in formative assessment. Perhaps their greatest contribution is as frameworks for both dialogue and writing. In Science teaching a good mind map shows you what they know!
Manipulates + 0.89 (close to one grades)
Manipulatives are learning games that force the participants to reason and make decisions.
They mainly involve the use of cards. In fact, they are rather like Graphic Organisers. But instead of the students drawing a diagram by choosing or remembering a series of linked words, the words are provided by the teacher. Pairs or groups of students manipulate the cards into different arrangements according to the task. Students have to agree by asking questions, explaining and making joint decisions.
- Tarsia puzzles are a really good example and they come in many forms.
- Ranking items with a criteria
- Matching cards
- Grouping cards into 3 or 4 piles, then ranking
Reciprocal + 0.89 (close to one grade)
Originally designed for students with difficulty in understanding text, this technique is very powerful for all students. It develops understanding of content and also improves comprehension skill generally.
The skills of understanding, summarising and asking appropriate questions were improved and transferred to different contexts. Students take it in turns to play the role of teacher and, as a result, they naturally adopt these higher order study skills. I think this is very useful for A-level students when reading through the textbook which you may assume they understand, when they have no idea!
Interactive Teaching/ AfL + 0.81 (close to one grade)
A specific approach to active learning in class which is very teacher led but very active for students. Students and teachers get feedback throughout. A simple “PAR Model” may be used which allows a teacher to adapt as they go….
- Review (the AfL part)
Elements of the lesson may include…
- mindmap, poster or handout that summarises the key points.
- Class discussion
- organisers revisited and more detail added
- reviews at the beginning of a lesson with a short task
- Tarsia cards
- Answering short review card
- Dice games with levelled questions
- Exam questions
Cooperative Learning + 0.75
Cooperative learning promotes active learning. But, often teachers get bogged down in thinking about logistics which are only half the story. To make sure learning takes place, the focus needs to be on how students interrogate, understand and communicate the information they encounter. They must ask good questions and really engage for this to work.
Jigsaw group work goes a long way to making this happen. Work is split into sections which are different for each group. Students have to explore, summarise and explain to each other and recombine in some form at the end of the lesson. You can also have “experts” move groups. Clearly this suits certain topics and subjects more than others. Climate change is a great example as people can take the roles of different sectors or jobs.
Evidence Based Teaching in Science (Staff training PPT)
ebt handbook 2010 (original work from Petty 2010)
Tarisa Puzzles (Download software – there are lots of examples online, I tend to till in the edges to make them harder, always keep an answer on PDF to project)