Lunar Astronomy and The Constellations
One of the first fun things to do with Space is look a the moon which is clearly very close and easy to find with binoculars or a more advanced telescope. The second is to try and look at some constellations OR planets which are a bit more tricky.
This resource should help you get started on both and has a few worksheets to tackle on telescopes with some basic information.
I suggest if you wish to do more you look on youtube as there are some very good guides to getting started.
The main thing to always remember is that even to look for a second at the sun with a telescope or binoculars will cause blindness in an instant. NEVER risk it!
You can look with the naked eye at closer celestial bodies very easily. However, further bodies will certainly require a telescope. I would advise to buy as big as you can and get a reflector as they take up less space. I have some example ones on the Powerpoint which are quite reasonable. You will also want to buy an adapter for your camera to attach to get a photo. However, I would add that mobile phones are not great for this and an SLR with an automatic take feature is essential to get a sharp picture. However, give it a go, this image I took with my Celestron Power Seeker EQ127 is has a 3x Barlow lens and I used my video camera. This was actually my first attempt and I think I can easily improve on that now.