# Category: A Level Physics Chapters

## 4 Waves

This topic a meaty one with plenty of learnt facts and calculations to build on the facts. You must write notes to help you remember the key points. Also try out the virtual links and further reading. However, don’t get too carried away with all the music stuff which can go pretty deep.

#### Resources

04 Waves Student Booklet

4.1 Waves and vibrations

04.1 Waves and Vibration

SHM Examples from IOP

4.2 Measuring waves

04.2 Measuring Waves

12_2_Dual_Beam_Results (Excel)

4.3 Wave Properties 1

04.3 Wave Props1

Riple Tank Simulation (Private Study – must do)

4.4 Wave Properties 2

04.4 Wave Props2

12_4_HSW_interference_using_microwaves (Practical or Data Exercise)

12_4_Two_Point_Interference_Notes (Word – Extra reading)

12_4_Superposition (Excel – Interactive addition of waves)

4.5 Stationary and Progressive Waves

04.5 Stat and Progressive

4.6 More about stationary waves on strings

04.6 Strings waves

Instrument_Frequencies (Html Table of Instruments)

12_6_String_Nodes_Results (Excel)

12_6_musical_scale (Excel – frequencies from Wiki)

4.7 Using an Oscilloscope

04.7 Using an Oscilloscope

## Polarisation of Waves - A Level Physics

In the video I explain the polarisation of waves (including the polarisation of light) for A Level Physics.

Only transverse waves can be polarised, this video explains why. It also shows ...
why sunglasses are known as 'polaroids' and how you can test this yourself on a sunny day.

Update - Please note that the reflected light waves from water are actually horizontally polarised:
https://sureshemre.wordpress.com/2014/01/02/light-reflecting-off-water-is-polarized/
https://www.osapublishing.org/DirectPDFAccess/70EF21F6-C0C6-DC00-994222A32CB6DCEF_276371/oe-21-26-32549.pdf?da=1&id=276371&seq=0&mobile=no

Thanks for watching,

Lewis

This video is recommended for anyone studying A Level Physics in the following exam boards:
AQA
CIE
Edexcel
Edexcel IAL
Eduqas
IB
OCR A
OCR B
WJEC

_____________________________________

MY PHYSICS WEBSITES
Find even more videos organised by exam board and topic at:

GCSE Physics Online
https://www.gcsephysicsonline.com
A Level Physics Online
https://www.alevelphysicsonline.com

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## 5 Optics

This section has some quite tricky concepts and really you need to look at the animations and play with the settings to get a feel for what happens to x when I change y etc..  You also need to learn the key diagrams as this will help your explanations. Finally look carefully at the derivations as they also will help you explain the tricky stuff.

#### Resources

05 Optics Student Booklet

5.1 Refraction of light

05.1 Refraction

13_1_Refraction_Practical (refractive index of a glass or a perspex block)

13_1_snells_law (practical results)

Refraction of Light (Java Applet)

Refraction Animation Shows Snell’s Law (Really Good)

5.2 More about refraction

05.2 More about Refraction

13_2_Refractive_Index_Water_Prac (Refractive Index of Water)

5.3 Total internal reflection

13_3_Fiber_Optics_HTML (HTML summary)

05.3 TIR

5.4 Double slit interference

05.4 Double Slit Interference

13_4_Youngs_Slits_Practical (Hard to make this practical work but interesting method)

Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit (Java Applet)

Interference of Light at a Double Slit (Java Applet)

5.5 More about interference/ 5.6 Diffraction/ 5.7 The diffraction grating

05.6 and 5.7 Diffraction

136_Practical_Properties_of_micro (Practical investigation of properties of transverse waves

13_7_Diff_grate_prac (Investigation into diffraction 1,2,3rd order for laser beam)

13_7_Laser_Diffraction_Results (example results for red neon laser)

13.7 Spectrometer setup (Instructions)

resolving power of eye (extension for interest)

Image Formation by Converging Lenses (Java Applet)

Refracting Astronomical Telescope (Java Applet)

## Amazing Refraction Magic Trick - The Appearing Beaker

Works on refraction and refractive index being matched.

When the refractive index is the same it reverses the changes in the light pathway and it goes!
 Title What to do Site Converging Mirror Lab Image in concave mirror PhysAviary Image formation in curved mirrors Images in mirrors Geobra Image formation in curved mirrors Images in mirrors Geobra Image formation in plane mirrors Images in mirrors Geobra Images in mirrors Mirrors Sim bucket Mirrors Images Boston Uni Mirrors and time Least time Boston Uni Name That Image Figure out image location/type of mirror Physics Classroom Optics Bench – Mirrors Use the bench to investigate images Physics Classroom Plane Mirror – How Tall? Images Boston Uni Reflection and the Role of Time Least time Boston Uni Who Can See Who Game to use mirrors Physics Classroom Reflection, Time, and the Law of Reflection Least time Boston Uni Refracting astronomical telescope Telescopes Fendt Total Internal Reflection TIR Boston Uni The Way a Mirror Works Lab (Concave) Curved mirrors – concave PhysAviary The Way a Mirror Works Lab (Concave) Curved mirrors – convex PhysAviary The Way a Mirror Works Lab (Plane) Reflection analogy PhysAviary Reflection and refraction Reflection/refraction Geobra Reflection and refraction of light Reflection and refraction Fendt Least Time Principle Drowned swimmer analogy Physics Classroom Refraction Investigate effect of angle, media Physics Classroom Rainbow formation Refraction Geobra Rainbow formation 3D Refraction Geobra Refraction Snell’s Law Boston Uni Refraction and the Role of Time Least time Boston Uni Refraction in a Block Snell’s Law Boston Uni Refraction Lab Refraction PhysAviary Refraction, the Role of Time, and Snell’s law Least time Boston Uni
 Title What to do Site Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit Diffraction Fendt Diffraction Lab Diffraction of Light PhysAviary EM Spectrum Lab Diffraction gratings PhysAviary RGB Color Addition Add different colours, explore uploaded image Physics Classroom Painting with CMY Change uniform colors and see effect Physics Classroom Color pigment mixing Color Geobra Color vision Color vision PhET Dispersion of light Dispersion Geobra Light mixing Color Geobra Coloured Shadows Make coloured shadows Physics Classroom Color Filters See effect of filters Physics Classroom Hit the Lights See effect of stage lighting Physics Classroom Double slit diffraction/interference Interference Geobra Double slit interference Interference Geobra Interference of light double slit Interference Fendt Thin film interference Interference Geobra Young’s Experiment Make measurements for double slit interference Physics Classroom Double slit interference with photons Interference Open Source Physics

## 1 Matter Radiation

This is a topic which introduces the detail of the atom, the idea of stability, the photon model E = hf, antiparticles and the interactions of particles. There is quite a lot of wordy detail and basic facts to learn with a small number of calculations such as specific charge or E = hf to cover. Also make sure you know what an electron volt is and how to derive it from first principals. Energies may also be expressed in Joules or MeV so be sure on that one as well. Also you must visit https://www.particleadventure.org/ to read around the first three topics. If you don’t you will fail the exam! But a word of caution you will not need to know everything on the site. The AS Physics Exam does not cover every particle in the universe so check the specs!

#### Main Resources….

01 Matter and Radiation

01 Matter and Rad Student Booklet

Inside the atom

1.1 Dream Journey Inside The Atom  (cartoon on the atom)

Stable and unstable nuclei

1.2 More on Neutrinos  (information sheet)

Photons

1.3 Lasers Extension (if you want to think more deeply about lasers)

Particles and antiparticles

1.4 Antimatter (cartoon on Antimatter)

1_4_Chronology of particle physics

How particles interact

1.5 Feynman Diagrams Worksheet (problems & solutions for Feynman Diagrams)

1.5 The Big Bang (Cartoon on Big Bang Theories)

1.5 Higgs Boson (some detail on what is the Higgs Boson)

## What Causes the Northern Lights? | Twig Secondary

Discover how the chemical reactions that produce the extraordinary colors of the Northern Lights have their origins in outer space.

Find out more about Twig Secondary: http://www.twigsecondary.com

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the channel for more science videos like this—with new topical science videos every Thursday!

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## AS Chapter 1 Matter and Radiation

This is a test designed to check if you understand Chapter 1 of the work you have completed. Only attempt this quiz when you have revised or you will not get a top score. When you get a score you are happy with let you teacher know so they can put it in their markbook.
Congratulations - you have completed AS Chapter 1 Matter and Radiation. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Shaded items are complete.
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 End

## 2 Quarks and leptons

This topic is about learning what is inside a nucleus and essentially how does that make an atom behave. You really need to learn a lot of basic facts.  You can also find loads of youtube movies, just search for the key terms and you will learn lots of things.

#### Main Resources

02 Quarks and Leptons

02 Quarks and Leptons Student Booklet

2.1 The particle zoo

Particle Physics Reference Booklet (Particle reference sheet)

2.2 Particle Sorting

2.2 ParticleAccelerators  (Information sheet from Cern on Accelerators)

2.2 LHC (Information sheet from Cern on Accelerators)

2.5 Conservation rules

Strangeness (Strangeness Summary)

## Cloud Chamber Cosmic Rays

Pb210 Source showing background alpha and neutrino, muons and other cosmic rays in a cloud chamber.

## AS Chapter 2 Quarks and Leptons

This is a test designed to check if you understand Chapter 2 of the work you have completed. Only attempt this quiz when you have revised or you will not get a top score. When you get a score you are happy with let you teacher know so they can put it in their markbook.
Congratulations - you have completed AS Chapter 2 Quarks and Leptons. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Shaded items are complete.
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 End

## 3 Quantum phenomena

This chapter covers the quantum phenomena of the photoelectric effect, excitation, fluorescence and line spectra. What is most important is to learn the ideas of photoelectric effect so you can construct a wordy answer to a 6-7 mark written question. Also make sure you know your Joules from your eV’s. Finally there are a lot of computer models to look at which help you visualise this topic make sure you spend the time looking through them

03 Quantum Phenomena Part A

03 Quantum Phenomena Part B

03-QM-Student-Booklet

Textbook-Extract

spectra

AS Physics Unit 3 Exam Questions

## Planck's Constant - Experiment to Estimate the Value of Planck's Constant

In this video a range of seven LEDs are used to investigate the relationship between photon energy and frequency so that a value for Planck's constant can be estimated.

There is ...
a worksheet that accompanies this experiment so you can attempt the analysis yourself.
Get it here: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/planck-s-constant-experiment-worksheet-12336895

In the follow up video (https://youtu.be/etsxej_nTGI) I analyse the results and calculate the value of Planck's constant yielded by the data. The spreadsheet used for analysis is available here: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/estimate-planck-s-constant-analysis-spreadsheet-12340515

* Heads up: the value of Planck's constant obtained in this experiment is an estimate and as you will find my value is very different to the data book value. It's quite bad on one level, but on another it may be useful for evaluation! *

Experiments about quantum concepts, like this one, are mandatory practicals for many physics specifications. So this is good practice for OCR physics A, AQA A-Level physics, Edexcel A-Level physics, CPAC, PAG, practical endorsement.

Relevant concepts: Planck's constant, quantum physics, LEDs, photons, electrons and potential difference.

## 12 Electric Current

This is the basic introduction to current flow and circuits. Really this unit is just an extension of GCSE Electricity with some harder problems using the same rules. Also you will need to remember how each component works and be able to interpret a VI graph. Always remember to check your gradient. Since V=IR a graph of V – y-axis and I – x-axis shows R as gradient. The other way around which is how we tend to do exp shows 1/R it does matter.

Circuit Construction Kit (phet animation)

12 Electric Current (lesson PPT)

12 Electric Current Student Booklet (lesson notes for section)

12.1 Current and charge

aluminium (Electrolysis of Aluminium Animation)

fluid_electrolysis (Electrolysis of Copper Chloride E=VIt)

12.2 Potential difference and power

Electron Speeds Worksheet (extension – challenge!)

Electricity Calculations & Sig Figures….. I would advise all of you to look at this tutorial this week before you do the unit homework…   https://www.chem.sc.edu/faculty/morgan/resources/sigfigs/index.html . An example is V = 12V, Resistance = 62Ω. If you work out the current through the resistor as V = IR changes to V/R = I = 12V/62 Ω = 0.193548A.  The original data is 2 sig figures so you should quote the answer to this as well. Hence…

0.2A  – Wrong                0.19A – Correct          0.193548A  – Wrong

12.3 Resistance

resistivity (animation) Use this to think about how atoms actually look inside a metal. Then imagine a drift of electrons through this.

4_3_Investigation (Practical Investigation & Worksheet)

4_3_Resistance Worksheet 1 (problems)

4_3_Resistance Worksheet 2(problems)

4.3 Resistance Networks Worksheet (problems)

Resistivity example data (this is a spreadsheet from practical with example graph)

Model (phet – resistivity of a wire)

Ohm’s Law Model (phet)

12.4 Components and their characteristics

4_4_Graphs Worksheet (graphing problems)

LED Forwards Bias Data (Excel) Data and graph from logger of diode in forwards bias with resistor inline.

oven temp sensor (How Science Works information sheet on thermistor at work)

Diode Problem (extra problem to look at) This one is often used in the AS exam when looking at diodes

Youtube Video Tutorials “Electricity” – Steve4Physics

## Van De Graaf Electrical Current

This quick demo shows the idea of sparking and how fast the spark can move between the electrodes and also how to the frequency of spark changes due to lower ...air resistance as you get closer to to he dome.[+] Show More

## 13 Direct current circuits

This section is about applying some more advanced rules to circuits that build on your GCSE skills. The trick is to realise that you must be 100% logical and treat it as a mathematical exercise. If you set up the problems correctly then you cannot go wrong. Take note of these things that you must be able to do…

1. Make sure you treat current and pd as having a direction.
2. Learn how to apply reciprocal equations for 1/R for resistors in parallel
3. Learn what the gradient and intercept mean on an Internal Resistance circuit graph
4. Remember that a power source is a “real source” and will get warm so lose energy! A 3V cell does not output 3V!
5. When thinking about potential dividers the trick is to realise that current is the same through each resistor. So setup two equations for V for each then I is the same for both!

13 DC Circuits (Main PPT)

13 DC Circuits Student Booklet (student booklet notes)

13.1 Circuit rules

5_1_kirchoffs laws (problem sheet)

13.2 More about resistance

5_2_Practical_investigating_resistors (Practical on Resistors)

5_2_practical_cons_energy (Practical sheet proving Kirchhoff’s laws)

resistor_cube_problem (Extension – 3D resistor cube problem – for fun!)

13.3 Emf and internal resistance

Internal Resistance Calculator (Hyper Physics)

5_3_EHT_Practical_Demo (teacher demo with results to graph)

5_3_Internal_Resistance Problems (probkems sheet)

5_3_IR_of_Battery variable current method (practical method 1)

5_3_IR_of_Cell adding bulbs method (practical method 2)   Results 3 Cells (excel results)

5_3_IR_Practical_Higher_Ability

5_3_IOP_notes  (extra reading from IOP)

13.4 More circuit calculations

5_4_Investigation_cell_combinations (Crucial practical which explores how PD behaves for series & parallel)

13.5 The potential divider

5_4_Potential_Dividers Worksheet

## Kirchhoff's Laws - A-level Physics

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00:00 Kirchhoff's 1st & 2nd laws
02:11 2nd law worked example

## 6 Alternating currents

This section is partly about learning to use and oscilloscope and partly about working out RMS currents and converting between A.C. and D.C. You must learn how to do both.

AS Physics Unit 1_6 (main notes / PDF)

6.1 Alternating current and power

Rectification (extension)

6.2 Using an oscilloscope

6_2 Practical Using OSC  (you need this to help you work the osc)

6_2_Oscilloscope Handbook (information for using OSC)

6.2 Oscilloscope Problems (worksheet)

6_2 Using an Osc (extension)

virtual osc (Very good virtual Oscilloscope – download, unzip and run in Internet Explorer. Use for 6.2 lesson)

Youtube Video Tutorials “Electricity” – Steve4Physics